Lower back pain is common in adults. This can be a result of repeated extension of the spine accompanied with rotation. This can lead to prolonged compression of facet joints which will lead to irritation. Muscle imbalances or extended/increased training schedules may be the result of this mechanical irritation. The symptoms include pain with specific movements of the spine, aggravation with extension and with training.
Examination will commonly reveal pain in the lower back with specific manoeuvres, however in high irritable presentations most movements will elicit some discomfort. Testing the functionality will allow the physiotherapist to guide on specific management. Testing of the lower limb and core function are critical components as any injury or dysfunction may lead to secondary overload of the lumbar spine.
The management of lower back pain varies greatly for each individual. Management is usually conservative treatment and aims to restore normal pain-free movements of the spine in the initial stages using manual techniques, medication and advice. Following this and when symptoms have settled, a more exercise-dominant rehabilitation plan will follow, aiming to correct muscle weaknesses and joint stiffness that can predispose to further injury. Re-introduction to sport will be done with sport-specific rehabilitation and gradually returning to full execution of sporting movements without symptoms.